From the Desk: The Yellow Scream & The Purple Dream

A Tale of Two Albums

Little Richard

I first heard “Tutti Frutti” on a big, ornate Wurlitzer jukebox at Butlin’s Holiday Camp at Pwihelli, Wales, and it fried my eleven year old mind totally and permanently.  I’d already heard a few records emanating from the USA under the catch-all banner of rock ‘n’ roll and was already enamored of Fats Domino, but to my ears Fats was  a jazzy blues artist.  I came from a family of working musicians, so had already been exposed to a quite sophisticated musical landscape by age eleven.  I was exploring piano and was soon to acquire my first guitar as my reward for passing the British 11 Plus Exam – the gateway to higher education for a working-class kid.

The Butlin’s jukebox had Bill Haley and The Comets, some early Presley and Chuck Berry, and the first lukewarm bleatings of British rock music, but I could tell instantly that this record was the real thing:  100 proof, high octane.  The propulsive quality was beyond exciting, with the thick layers of synchronized saxophones driving the improbably frantic, hysterical screaming of one Richard Penniman … the quasar, the thunderbolt … Little Richard.  The B-side (yeah,sure!) was “Long Tall Sally,” and I spent hours pumping coins into the jukebox to hear those two inflammatory pieces of music.  By the time our week-long holiday was over and we returned to Liverpool, I was totally besotted and brainwashed by what had hit me like the proverbial ton of bricks.

No, I didn’t rush out to buy the disc when we got home.  Although there were gramophones to be found in the neighborhood and the family, my dad had opted for an early Grundig tape recorder instead so he could record classical music from the BBC.  It was expected that I would buckle down to my academic future, which did not include the rampant ravings of Little Richard.

As fate would have it, there was a shop in our part of town called Epstein & Sons, which sold electric appliances of all kinds.  It occupied a large corner lot and consequently had room for big display windows, two fronting the busy thoroughfare of County Road and a third and smaller window facing onto the side street.  This window had recently started featuring musical merchandise of a modest nature:  small Dansette record players and radios, a smattering of down-market guitars and the like, plus a display of records, including some of the new-fangled LP discs.  This side window seemed to be put together with a lot of care, and became a regular stopping place for us incipient teenagers. I lived a couple of blocks away and passed it daily as there was also a bus stop nearby.

At this point I had yet to see a photograph of Little Richard, so when Epstein’s displayed his first LP “Here’s Little Richard” in all its screamingly fluorescent yellow glory, it hit me as the visual embodiment of the music still rooted in my head. The photographic image was outrageous, and I didn’t even know that word yet.  It was a head-shot and, yes, he was screaming for sure!  Eyes closed, mouth wide and extravagantly equipped with pearly whites, a towering pompadour, and a precise toothbrush moustache, it seemed like every bead of sweat on his face was etched in diamond dust.  For grey, dreary Liverpool, in grey, dreary post -war England it was a remarkable, jolting image.  Although it was an exact facsimile of the U.S. cover on Specialty Records, one has to praise the marketing people at Decca Records, who were issuing the discs on their London-American imprint, for letting that cover loose in England untouched.

I could live without a pictureless single, but the actual album I had to have!  I had a source of pocket-money from helping out at a fishmongers, which paid half a crown a week.  At that rate it would take almost a month to save up the price of the LP, so I spent a lot of time staring in that Epstein & Sons window.  The other black face on display was that of Fats Domino, in caricature, which in hindsight was very apt.  Allen Toussaint once famously remarked “Fat’s Domino’s music never harmed man, woman or child,” whereas Little Richard’s look and sound were the diametric opposite.  Dangerous !

-oOo-

In retrospect, there were many extraordinary developments in this twelve-song compilation, which was essentially the A and B sides of his entire output on Specialty up to that time.  The studio cast was basically  the team who had provided Fats Domino’s genial, rolling groove on records since 1949 and the studio in New Orleans, right where it had always been, was Cosimo Mattassa’s – J & M.

Dave Bartholomew was not in charge, however. Bumps Blackwell, who came in as Art Rupe’s producer on the sessions, was initially very doubtful about Richard’s ability on the ivories, and consequently booked the New Orleans piano legend Huey Smith to handle the piano duties. Huey played on the early attempts at recording Richard at J &M, but those takes didn’t get it as far as Art was concerned.  Rupe is quoted as saying that Bumps called that one wrong: “Richard could only play in one key, but he was great in that key!”

Penniman’s relentless piano pounding and generally manic triads jack-hammering along with his over-the-top vocals, affected the way Earl Palmer was able to play the drum parts.  In his biography Backbeat Palmer stated that Richard’s rough and ready approach was as exciting in the studio as on stage, and in order to accommodate the artist’s unique perception he had to come up with an approach that is now considered to be the inventive template for rock drumming.  Palmer moved the right hand emphasis away from the ride cymbal to the hi-hat because Richard had already filled that acoustic space with those relentless triads.  To all intents and purposes, this was the beginning of rock drumming as we know it today, the looser, splashy swing of a ride cymbal replaced by the more clipped hi-hat sound, which also changed the perception of syncopation for the whole band.

Fats and the other New Orleans piano “Perfessors” were much better technicians than Richard and had the rich history of piano playing in the area on which to base their styles.  Penniman was a Georgia country boy out of Macon; he’d been knocking around on the southern circuit for quite some time and had even cut some sides with his road band, The Upsetters, so his own approach was pretty much set by the time he began working with the sophisticated musicians at J & M.  It was down to them to accommodate his way of doing it, which is probably why the studio band sounded so radically different on Richard’s records than on those of Fats and Bartholomew.  Bumps Blackwell was also a stranger to the area, a gun for hire, so he was also free of preconceptions as to how the music should turn out.

The resulting juggernaut of sound flattened everything else that  hit the record stores and airwaves.  Cosimo’s monophonic mixes are still a marvel … never listen to this stuff in stereo, by the way!  This was genuinely unhinged, wild and crazy shit.

Presley , Buddy Holly and Carl Perkins were coming out of an  established form (country and western), Chuck Berry’s music had strains of country and small combo jump blues, and Fats couldn’t have been more rooted in his hometown of New Orleans.  Only Bo Diddley was as truly iconoclastic as Little Richard Penniman, but Bo’s palate was much more limited and restricted, although no less exciting in its way.

Drop a needle anywhere on this platter, it doesn’t matter … the barn is burnin’ wherever you land.

-oOo-

It isn’t just the music either.  I soon realized that within the rapid-fire nonsense syllables was a cast of characters worthy of Chaucer (I’d just started reading The Canterbury Tales).  Bald‑headed Sally, Uncle John, Aunt Mary, Miss Anne, Ready Teddy, Jenny, and the narrator himself, who frequently puts himself in the thick of the action.  It also seemed that the word “ball” served equally as noun or verb; in short, I could tell these were not paeans to pure innocence.  They were nasty songs about nasty people doing nasty things … grown-up people doing grown-up stuff, and apparently having a ball ballin’, slippin’ and slidin’, peepin’ and a hidin’, and so on.  This was a big ol’ slice of black American life served pipin’ hot.  There was another subtext I couldn’t put my finger on just yet, but “Little Richard – Volume 2” was soon to clarify that for me.

-oOo-

When “Little Richard – Volume 2” took its place beside the Yellow Scream in the display window at Epstein & Sons, the visual contrast was extremely noticeable.  Haloed in a purple haze, the headshot was air-brushed to a svelte smoothness with the addition of what looked suspiciously like a liberal use of cosmetics.  In retrospect, it seems to have provided the template for the look that Prince took to the bank thirty years later, whether by accident or design.

The music was pretty much as explosive as before, blasting off with “Keep A Knockin'” delivered at a blistering pace, and throughout the collection there were enough incendiary performances to keep my rock ‘n’ roll heart happy.  However, Art Rupe must have been aware that Fats Domino was having a string of huge successes with rocking re-vamps of standards and evergreens, so in the mix this time were “By The Light Of The Silvery Moon” and “Baby Face.” Fats’s style was such that songs from an older generation fitted very well with his approach, whereas Richard’s take on these standards came across  as camp, although I didn’t know that word yet in its socio-sexual context.  Most disconcerting to my still-innocent sensibilities was the ending of “Ooh, My Soul” where his otherwise flame-thrower vocal dissolved into a girlish simpering giggle.  At that point in time, homosexual behavior was generally very discreet in the U.K. and especially in an über-macho environment like Liverpool, so it took awhile for the penny to drop that Richard was gay, but so what?  In hindsight, and in the historical context, there are clues scattered throughout his work, but his persona and sound were so exotic and wildly flamboyant anyway, that we just accepted it as part of the package.

Obviously, a sophisticate like Brian Epstein would have been in on the skinny; he must have got a kick displaying those subversive album covers openly in staid, Irish-Catholic North Liverpool!

What is undeniable is the fervor and pulse of the music, arguably the greatest rock ‘n’ roll ever recorded, and as scalding hot today as it was sixty years ago.  Although ostensibly a non-stop paean to rampant hedonism, most of Richard’s stylistic devices came directly out of the black Pentecostal church tradition, which was still a hidden, unknown quantity to the world at large before Richard let the genie out of the bottle.  The black church seems to have made its peace between the sacred and profane early on, making it possible for such a unique artist as Little Richard Penniman to emerge fully formed from that background.

I was lined up with rest of the Liverpool musical youth, when Richard headlined at Liverpool Empire, backed by Sounds Incorporated and a barely teenage Billy Preston on Hammond Organ, with The Beatles making their first concert appearance anywhere, ever, as the opening act.  In the late 60s, when I was deep into the Pentecostal soul scene as Doris Troy’s pianist and band‑leader(and was consequently under the Apple umbrella along with Billy Preston), I had the great pleasure of spending quite a bit of time with Billy (always a monster talent), and he had fond memories of his time with Little Richard.  He reckoned that without touring with Richard he probably would never have linked up with The Beatles or The Rolling Stones.

These two Little Richard albums are essential listening for anyone interested in the vibrant heart of rock ‘n’ roll!

-oOo-

As promised, this piece is dedicated to R. Stevie Moore, who knows his rock ‘n’ roll and who triggered this memory by posting a picture of The Yellow Scream on Facebook a couple of weeks ago.

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From The Desk – The Real Jungle Room

The Jungle Room by Ed and Eddy
The Jungle Room by Ed and Eddy (Creative Commons – http://goo.gl/YDrGH6)

At Graceland, tourists goggle at the sight of the garish room that Elvis dubbed “The Jungle Room.”

As far as I’m concerned, the real Jungle Room was in Hampstead, London, where Doris Troy resided from 1969-1972, during her time with Apple Records and her reign as doyenne of the British back-ground singer scene.  Befitting her status as a hit songwriter and esteemed performer, and newly signed to The Beatles’ label, she lived in fine style.  A spacious apartment in fashionable Hampstead, with a tennis court, and her Austin Princess limo parked in the back, it had a huge room for entertaining, which she had tastefully decorated  with African motifs and outfitted with enough banquettes and coffee tables to comfortably seat thirty or forty people.

I’d been associated with Doris since her first U.K. tour with The Rolling Stones and The Hollies in 1963, had played with her on all her subsequent European tours, and so, by the time she settled in London, I happily became her full-time pianist and musical director.  I lived reasonably close by, in Camden Town, in a nice third story flat, but because it was only accessible via a narrow, Dickensian staircase, the natural home for my Hammond B-3, when we weren’t on the road, was The Jungle Room.  Being a cool pianist herself, Doris had a fine spinet piano (Yamaha or Kawai, not sure) in there, and also an Afro-Cuban percussion setup.

In this room Doris would assemble vocal groups to rehearse for her myriad vocal session projects and it was where we brewed up the Pentecostal rave-up that became the ground-breaking live album “The Rainbow Testament.” Doris’s Jungle Room soon turned into a “Salon de Soul,” if you will.  Initially, Billy Preston was around all the time, as he was signed to Apple too, and he and Doris were writing and recording full-steam.  I got to spend so much precious time with him … what a warm and friendly man, and so generous … one could learn a lot from Billy P.

Every eminent U.S. touring star had the Troy phone number, and that was often the first call they’d make!  Doris was like the U.S Ambassador for Soul in the U.K, (or more aptly, ” Mama Soul,” as she came to be known there). Her place became a home away from home, and the amazing array of great artists I got to hang out with in that room still spins my head to this day!  Ben. E. King, affectionately called Bennie, Edwin Starr, Maxine Brown, Obie Benson of The Four Tops, Esther Phillips, Junior Walker, Solomon Burke, Rufus Thomas, and a host of others would come by.  The piano, the Hammond organ, and the percussion set-up would usually be too tempting for guests to by-pass, so many an impromptu jam would happen.

It was also ground zero for the many ex-pat Americans in Doris’s orbit:  Pat (P.P.) Arnold and Jimmy Thomas, recently of the Ike &Tina Turner Revue, Rosetta Hightower, Claudia Linnear, Jimmy Helms, and many others got it on back there. Stephen Stills was a frequent visitor and, needless to say, there was usually a sprinkling of Apple illuminati around.

When Chris White, of Zombies fame, signed on to produce “The Rainbow Testament,” he got his first taste of the Pentecostal bomb squad in that room.  By rock’n’roll standards, Chris was a low-key gentleman, arriving sedately with his new bride, but he was rapidly swept up in the contagious atmosphere, only leaving when the last Hallelujah! had been sung in the early hours.  By the time tape was rolling at the Rainbow Theatre some weeks later, Chris had his sanctified hat on for sure!

The band assembled for that live album was a juggernaut, much larger than the regular version of The Gospel Truth (which was usually a 10-piece) so the logistics were formidable .  As an ensemble rehearsal wasn’t on the cards, the great saxman Phil Kenzie, Doris, and I plotted and planned the whole shebang back there in The Jungle Room like it was the Normandy landing. Phil was in charge of the horn section, Doris had responsibility for the choir, natch, and the rhythm section was my pigeon.  Each element was rehearsed separately with the three of us in attendance, and Chris dropped by from time to time to check progress.  By show time the jigsaw fitted together perfectly, as is evident in the finished product.

But, as George Harrison, who produced records with both Doris and Billy during that time, sagely put it, “All Things Must Pass.”  Eventually Doris returned to the States; I followed soon after, as did Phil.  I sometimes wonder if subsequent occupants of that Hampstead house ever walked into that big back room and picked up a ghostly soulful vibe or two.

From The Desk…Re-Issues

Reissues
Mr. Bing’s by JOtwell

There was time when re-issues (or sometimes first issues) of bygone recorded music was almost exclusively the territory of jazz or classical musicians, and I would try to imagine the feeling of hearing one’s contributions to music from one’s past. After fifty plus years of recording, I think I now know.

The advent of CDs fueled re-issues on a much larger scale, and like many musicians of a certain vintage I’ve been able to hear music I was a part of so many years ago all gussied up for both nostalgia buffs and newer ears.  Older studio recordings nowadays are almost infinitely malleable, via digital manipulation and editing, but filmed live performances from way back in the day tend to be closer to the bone, I feel, because the sound and visuals have to be in sync, so there’s not as much leeway to change or “improve” things.  To me they are the more interesting things to re-view, or re-hear, so to speak.

What I remember most about the recordings I was involved with in the 60s and early 70s in the U.K., which have been the subject of extensive re-issue, was the fact that I was shit-scared, with my heart in my mouth, most of the time, yet the re-issued records don’t convey anything but calm professionalism on my part, and on the part of everyone else involved.

The live concert records and TV performances I did  from that era, with Doris Troy and, particularly Chuck Berry, are alive with swagger and hot licks all round … living in the heady moment, I guess. Mr. Berry, in particular, used to encourage me to play looong piano solos, and he’d whip the crowd up no end, which I appreciated at the time, and still do viewing the footage today.

When I get a compliment from a younger musician about a certain track I played on, it’s a wonderful feeling, whether a studio track or a live one. My idol and dear late friend Larry Knechtel, who played on so many monster records, told me once … and I paraphrase …”The only record that matters is the next one.”  Wise words indeed, but when one has a less extensive track record than someone of his epic achievements, the opportunity to savor highlights of yesterday are something to be savored.

In Nashville there are legions of players who have played on legions of records, both old and new, and the same goes for the brotherhood in the great recording centers around the world, who all deserve the greatest respect. To my brothers and sisters in arms, I would counsel y’all to smell the faded roses whenever they’re available. They may be fresher than you remember!

From The Desk…Expansions on Co-writing

Co-Writing

 

Augmenting a partner’s strengths and shoring up their weak spots may seem like an obvious notion, and so it should be, but artists have egos, and sometimes an individual’s understanding of their scope may not agree with yours. If the division of labor is demarcated- as with the lyricist/ melodist model, it’s clear cut. But often the lines are more difficult to draw. If writing partners are bringing a complete skill set to the table (good lyrical ability, adept musicality, melodic strength that can be vocally realized on the spot) it can all seem like a walk in the park, euphoric even. But that kind of synchronicity is rare, and those lucky enough to find it often spend their careers together. However, life has a way of intervening, and sometimes even long-standing partners feel the need to move on.

Many writers began writing solo and got into co-writing because that’s the prevalent model in their corner of the industry, with Nashville being a prime modern example, as are EDM, and hip-hop, where the list of songwriter credits can be longer than the lyric….to be deprived of a long standing writing partner can be devastating, and often neither can ever again match the achievements they attained together. Maintaining one’s individual identity can be a balancing act, because the very act of co-writing involves sharing, and baring elements of one’s inner self. Some people are less able to do that than others, but it usually becomes obvious rather quickly, at which point it’s better to cut and run. As a rule of thumb, if the process feels forced, then it probably is.

My longest partnership was about ten years. We each had the aforementioned skill-set, plus a shared ability to see our subject matter in a theatrical, almost cinematic way, so that the musical and lyrical aspects tended to be apropos to the characters and situations to which we were trying to give flesh. We wrote three to four days a week religiously, and during that time seldom wrote outside the partnership.  We meshed well and the result was a solid catalog. But life intervened. I’ve always considered myself a solo writer who enjoys co-writing if the stars are aligned, so I was able to be philosophical- grateful for the experience, but just as ready to move forward to the next table as my former partner was. No bad feelings, no cross words, simply dealing with the reality.

There is also no guarantee that putting established writers in the same room will produce great songs. Some years ago, I was managing the publishing operation of a highly successful, award-winning writer when I came upon a tape box of titles which bore not only my boss’s name, but also the name of an even more famous writer. I wondered why this cache was collecting dust in the vault, but when I brought the subject up my employer said “Didn’t work” I listened to the tapes anyway, but he was right. On paper, this should have been a world-beating collaboration, but in reality it was flat as a pancake, and obviously they both knew it.

RULES ARE MADE TO BE BROKEN.

Notwithstanding any advice you may get from me or anyone else, there are no hard and fast rules. The whole endeavor is so subjective that the wild whimsy of a John Lennon or Roger Miller, and the studied thoughtfulness of a Hal David can each result in wonderful, memorable song craft….for every uber sophisticated Burt Bacharach or Jimmy Webb there is a raw-boned counterpart who can touch the listener just as deeply, and touching the listener deeply is the main object.

From The Desk…Three Flags

Three Flags

Upon moving into our 1875 cottage in the Historic Edgefield district across the Cumberland  River from downtown Nashville, one of the first things I did, given the extant horizontal flagpole on the front porch, was to purchase small versions of the three flags that define my life journey and that of my family.  Today they are rigid and fringed with icicles, which gives them almost a sculptured quality.  I suppose it made me take a deeper look.

Each flag is a modest 12″ x 8″, with the Irish Republic tri-color (the green, white and gold) at the top end of the pole, the Stars & Bars in the center, and the Union Jack on the inside.  No conflict on this flagstaff, however … the tri-color honors my first generation Irish roots and the deep connection I’ve always felt to Ireland, and still do. The Union Jack speaks to my birth country and the city I was fortunate enough to be born in, Liverpool, Star Of The Sea.  Although I never felt English, really, England was mostly my day-to-day reality, and  I prospered on that alien shore, especially during the Swinging London period when my musical career was going gangbusters, and I met the woman of my life, a wispy American blonde who loved England more than I did, my wife Patti.

Our first child, Celeste, was born in London in 1970, so she’s a Brit. We moved to the States in 1973 and our son was born in 1977, so he’s an American.  I finally took U.S citizenship in the 90s, which makes me now an Irish-Scouse-Yank.

So these three flags, currently frozen in place, but soon to be free again, sum up our family and our journey. Long may they wave!

From The Desk…Songwriting: An Industry Overview

Michael Snow and Brian WIlloughby  in the Studio (photo by JOtwell)
Michael Snow and Brian WIlloughby in the Studio (photo by JOtwell)

The landscape has changed radically in the music industry over the past thirty years, and songwriters have taken a particularly hard hit as the newer technological innovations have turned the old business models on their heads.

The days of signing bonuses from performance rights agencies such as B.M.I., and ASCAP  are long gone. The days of publishing company draws ( basically, indentured servitude to a company in return for a weekly stipend) are also mainly a memory, as operations become leaner and much  meaner, so a modern start-up songwriter has to be considered as an independent operative for hire, and, as such, needs to take care of  the early preparations independently. The days of walking into a publishing office with a battered guitar and a bag of songs are over, and have been for a long time. So, in the here and now, an aspiring writer has to be prepared in many areas.

FIRST MOVE

If you don’t live in one of the major music centers, that have multiple open-mic opportunities to try out your stuff, find a local bar or venue where you can have a go. Sometimes that’s enough to make a person realize they ain’t got it. Sometimes it gives you confidence to go on.

FILLING THE WELL

Songs are not made in a vacuum;

Whether you are primarily a lyricist, a music person, or one who is inclined to bring the whole package, READ! Read books, histories, newspapers, magazines and on and on. Read all you can about the history of music in as many forms as you can absorb. LISTEN to as many musical genres as possible. You may not dig everything you hear, but you can learn from everything you hear! The planet is alive with musical styles, performers and artists…we are lucky that sound recording was invented long enough ago that the works of master songwriters of the early 20th century are preserved not only on paper, but in audio form. At the very least, go as far back as Cole Porter and the great writers of the 1930’s….you won’t regret it.

If you still feel up to the task, then it gets tough! Songwriting is a serious endeavor, not to be approached lightly, because your competitors are not approaching it lightly. You must be your own harshest critic, and also the hardest critic of your songwriting partners.

PRESENTATION

When you first start showing your wares, don’t display every song you ever wrote. Select three to five pieces only, and prepare neatly typed lyric sheets…..a hand-written lyric by John Lennon may be money in the bank, but your indecipherable scrawl will most likely be consigned to the waste basket.

A simple demo is still the preferred form of presentation, whichever format is acceptable to your target. If your own playing and/or singing skills are not up to par, there are professionals who can provide such services.

Very few reputable publishing houses still maintain an open door policy, and the designated gate keepers can now include music industry attorneys and managers, plus the various performing rights organizations, such as BMI, ASCAP & SESAC.

Unsolicited demos, lyrics etc. are almost universally discarded unopened. Don’t waste time and money on that approach.

Unless you have a strong support network with finances and faith in your talents (i.e. Taylor Swift, whose family came to Nashville with the express intent of launching their prodigy), or family connections in the industry (i.e. Key$ha, or any other of the offspring around the big music centers) your only realistic option is to get in the trenches with all the other hopefuls, network like crazy and work your butt off.

It’s unquestionably a mountainous endeavor, so be prepared for a ton of negatives along the way and have a bottomless supply of true grit.

From the Desk…Writing vs Interpreting

Joe Cocker by Eddie Monosnaps (https://flic.kr/p/7ip44) Creative Commons License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode
Joe Cocker by Eddie Monosnaps (https://flic.kr/p/7ip44) Creative Commons License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode

Although Joe Cocker co-wrote many songs, mostly with long-time keyboard cohort Chris Stainton, it was his interpretive skills that, rightly, took him to the heights. Despite his ramshackle manner, he was a deeply informed student of song, as evidenced by his extremely wide range of source material, which covered most of the bases of popular and also eclectic songwriting.

His signature songs, ” A Little Help From My Friends” and “You Are So Beautiful” by Lennon & McCartney and Billy Preston, respectively, are among the best-known cover songs in modern musical history, and along with  his duet with Jennifer Warnes, the ubiquitous “Up Where We Belong” (Will Jennings, Jack Nitzche, Buffy Saint Marie ), are probably the most recognizable pillars of his reputation, but in his long career, there were so many writers who benefited from his way with a song.

Up front about his adoration for Ray Charles, he was visibly moved on a TV program when Ray complemented him on being a star pupil ” He may have begun taking it from me, but what you hear now is all Joe Cocker-it’s his soul you’re hearin’ “.

 He inhabited a song as completely as did Ray Charles, which is as fitting a tribute as he would ever have wanted, being the humble man he was.